It is forbidden impossible to speak to anyone about your deepest feelings and your inner experiences on the spiritual path - with the exception of your spouse. In sharing their feelings, the husband and wife complement one another, and together they advance into spirituality. Today it is practically impossible for a man and a woman to maintain a good relationship over time, unless there is a spiritual connection between them.
It's because their egos clash one against the other and destroy their connection.
Today there are countless divorces, and most relationships fall apart, because our egos are "on fire," and they only grow bigger with time. The beautiful verse, "Man, woman, and the Divine Presence between them" - simply does not exist in such couples. So what does it take to create that spiritual connection between them, the only thing that can remedy their relationship?
Having a spiritual connection means that both partners know the reason for their existence - to embark on the spiritual journey and attain the spiritual goal of life. Then they will have something that truly connects them, they will be in a mutual "cell" together, and the verse "Man, woman, and the Divine Presence between them" will really come true.
In other words, they will feel the revelation of the Divine Presence - the Creator. Today the divorce rate is astounding and most relationships are short-lived. Because of this, it is very important for people to find out how they can maintain a successful marriage. In order for a woman to understand how to best fulfill her part of the relationship, she must understand the nature of a man. Then she will be wise and able to create a lasting and loving relationship. But how can a woman come to understand a man's nature? After all, men and women are so different.
In fact, the right understanding can come from the right actions. A woman should express her appreciation of her man, letting him know that he is special to her, that he is great - and doing this often!
Then she will realize what he needs from her, and what kind of a connection there should be between them. She will see that a man needs motherly care, praise, and admiration. Despite being masculine, big, and "macho," a man actually has a great need for sympathy. And if a woman gives this to him, he won't be able to leave her. In fact, it's similar to how a woman acts with a child.
She tells him, "You're wonderful, you did such a great job, you're big, you can do it, you're special, you're the most unique person in the entire world - you, you, you But most importantly, she should do this with love. A man desires to hear this all the time, because men really are like children, and they often see a woman as a mother. And even though this kind of a relationship may seem "imbalanced," it will become balanced out because it will make the man want to "rise up," to show how great he is.
It will awaken his desire to become greater in a positive way, rather than in an overbearing, negative way. Many people today create "virtual romantic connections" on social sites such as Facebook. They meet other people, share pictures, and even fall in love with their virtual partners! The reason we are so drawn to our virtual partners is because the connection we make with them is non-material, detached from physical contact, and even "spiritual" in a way.
Since we're not tied down by any physical limitations, we're let free to fantasize as much as we want to, to attribute all the best qualities to our virtual significant other, and to raise our connection with them "into the clouds," so to speak. We convince ourselves of how special this connection is, and that it's an opportunity to reach beautiful, perfect love. But unfortunately, it's all an illusion. The nefesh is found in all humans, and enters the physical body at birth. It is the source of one's physical and psychological nature.
The next two parts of the soul are not implanted at birth, but can be developed over time; their development depends on the actions and beliefs of the individual. They are said to only fully exist in people awakened spiritually. A common way of explaining the three parts of the soul is as follows: The Raaya Meheimna , a section of related teachings spread throughout the Zohar, discusses fourth and fifth parts of the human soul, the chayyah and yehidah first mentioned in the Midrash Rabbah.
Gershom Scholem writes that these "were considered to represent the sublimest levels of intuitive cognition, and to be within the grasp of only a few chosen individuals". The Chayyah and the Yechidah do not enter into the body like the other three—thus they received less attention in other sections of the Zohar.
Both rabbinic and kabbalistic works posit that there are a few additional, non-permanent states of the soul that people can develop on certain occasions. These extra souls, or extra states of the soul, play no part in any afterlife scheme, but are mentioned for completeness:. Reincarnation , the transmigration of the soul after death, was introduced into Judaism as a central esoteric tenet of Kabbalah from the Medieval period onwards, called Gilgul neshamot "cycles of the soul". The concept does not appear overtly in the Hebrew Bible or classic rabbinic literature, and was rejected by various Medieval Jewish philosophers.
However, the Kabbalists explained a number of scriptural passages in reference to Gilgulim. The concept became central to the later Kabbalah of Isaac Luria, who systemised it as the personal parallel to the cosmic process of rectification. Through Lurianic Kabbalah and Hasidic Judaism, reincarnation entered popular Jewish culture as a literary motif. This allowed the emergence of independent existence that would not become nullified by the pristine Infinite Light, reconciling the unity of the Ein Sof with the plurality of creation.
In contrast, a new emanation after the Tzimtzum shone into the vacuum to begin creation, but led to an initial instability called Tohu Chaos , leading to a new crisis of Shevirah Shattering of the sephirot vessels. The shards of the broken vessels fell down into the lower realms, animated by remnants of their divine light, causing primordial exile within the Divine Persona before the creation of man.
Exile and enclothement of higher divinity within lower realms throughout existence requires man to complete the Tikkun olam Rectification process. Rectification Above corresponds to the reorganization of the independent sephirot into relating Partzufim Divine Personas , previously referred to obliquely in the Zohar. From the catastrophe stems the possibility of self-aware Creation, and also the Kelipot Impure Shells of previous Medieval kabbalah.
The metaphorical anthropomorphism of the partzufim accentuates the sexual unifications of the redemption process, while Gilgul reincarnation emerges from the scheme. Uniquely, Lurianism gave formerly private mysticism the urgency of Messianic social involvement. According to interpretations of Luria, the catastrophe stemmed from the "unwillingness" of the residue imprint after the Tzimtzum to relate to the new vitality that began creation. The process was arranged to shed and harmonise the Divine Infinity with the latent potential of evil.
Historical and individual history becomes the narrative of reclaiming exiled Divine sparks. Kabbalistic thought extended Biblical and Midrashic notions that God enacted Creation through the Hebrew language and through the Torah into a full linguistic mysticism. In this, every Hebrew letter, word, number, even accent on words of the Hebrew Bible contain esoteric meanings, describing the spiritual dimensions within exoteric ideas, and it teaches the hermeneutic methods of interpretation for ascertaining these meanings.
Names of God in Judaism have further prominence, though fluidity of meaning turns the whole Torah into a Divine name. As the Hebrew name of things is the channel of their lifeforce, parallel to the sephirot, so concepts such as "holiness" and " mitzvot " embody ontological Divine immanence, as God can be known in manifestation as well as transcendence.
The infinite potential of meaning in the Torah, as in the Ein Sof , is reflected in the symbol of the two trees of the Garden of Eden; the Torah of the Tree of Knowledge is the external, Halachic Torah, through which mystics can perceive the unlimited Torah of the Tree of Life. In Lurianic expression, each of the , souls of Israel find their own interpretation in Torah.
The reapers of the Field are the Comrades, masters of this wisdom, because Malkhut is called the Apple Field, and She grows sprouts of secrets and new meanings of Torah. Those who constantly create new interpretations of Torah are the ones who reap Her. As early as the 1st century BCE Jews believed that the Torah and other canonical texts contained encoded messages and hidden meanings. Gematria is one method for discovering its hidden meanings. Each letter in Hebrew also represents a number; Hebrew, unlike many other languages, never developed a separate numerical alphabet.
By converting letters to numbers, Kabbalists were able to find a hidden meaning in each word. This method of interpretation was used extensively by various schools. Like the rest of the rabbinic literature, the texts of kabbalah were once part of an ongoing oral tradition, though, over the centuries, much of the oral tradition has been written down.
Jewish forms of esotericism existed over 2, years ago. Ben Sira born c. Throughout the centuries since, many texts have been produced, among them the ancient descriptions of Sefer Yetzirah , the Heichalot mystical ascent literature, the Bahir , Sefer Raziel HaMalakh and the Zohar , the main text of Kabbalistic exegesis. Classic mystical Bible commentaries are included in fuller versions of the Mikraot Gedolot Main Commentators.
Cordoveran systemisation is presented in Pardes Rimonim , philosophical articulation in the works of the Maharal , and Lurianic rectification in Etz Chayim. Hasidism interpreted kabbalistic structures to their correspondence in inward perception. The first modern-academic historians of Judaism, the " Wissenschaft des Judentums " school of the 19th century, framed Judaism in solely rational terms in the emancipatory Haskalah spirit of their age.
They opposed kabbalah and restricted its significance from Jewish historiography. In the midth century, it was left to Gershom Scholem to overturn their stance, establishing the flourishing present-day academic investigation of Jewish mysticism, and making Heichalot, Kabbalistic and Hasidic texts the objects of scholarly critical-historical study. In Scholem's opinion, the mythical and mystical components of Judaism were at least as important as the rational ones, and he thought that they, rather than the exoteric Halakha, were the living current in historical Jewish development.
Moshe Idel has opened up research on the Ecstatic Kabbalah alongside the theosophical, and has called for new multi-disciplinary approaches, beyond the philological and historical that have dominated until now, to include phenomenology , psychology , anthropology and comparative studies. Historians have noted that most claims for the authority of kabbalah involve an argument of the antiquity of authority see, e. As a result, virtually all early foundational works pseudepigraphically claim, or are ascribed, ancient authorship.
For example, Sefer Raziel HaMalach , an astro-magical text partly based on a magical manual of late antiquity, Sefer ha-Razim , was, according to the kabbalists, transmitted by the angel Raziel to Adam after he was evicted from Eden. Another famous work, the early Sefer Yetzirah , is dated back to the patriarch Abraham.
Although Kabbalah propounds the Unity of God, one of the most serious and sustained criticisms is that it may lead away from monotheism, and instead promote dualism , the belief that there is a supernatural counterpart to God.
The dualistic system holds that there is a good power versus an evil power. There are two primary models of Gnostic-dualistic cosmology: This second model influenced the cosmology of the Kabbalah. According to Kabbalistic cosmology, the Ten Sephirot correspond to ten levels of creation. These levels of creation must not be understood as ten different "gods" but as ten different ways of revealing God, one per level. While God may seem to exhibit dual natures masculine-feminine, compassionate-judgmental, creator-creation , all adherents of Kabbalah have consistently stressed the ultimate unity of God.
For example, in all discussions of Male and Female, the hidden nature of God exists above it all without limit, being called the Infinite or the "No End" Ein Sof —neither one nor the other, transcending any definition. The ability of God to become hidden from perception is called "Restriction" Tzimtzum. Hiddenness makes creation possible because God can become "revealed" in a diversity of limited ways, which then form the building blocks of creation.
Kabbalistic texts, including the Zohar , appear to affirm dualism, as they ascribe all evil to the separation from holiness known as the Sitra Achra  "the other side" which is opposed to Sitra D'Kedushah , or the Side of Holiness. While this evil aspect exists within the divine structure of the Sephirot, the Zohar indicates that the Sitra Ahra has no power over Ein Sof , and only exists as a necessary aspect of the creation of God to give man free choice, and that evil is the consequence of this choice.
It is not a supernatural force opposed to God, but a reflection of the inner moral combat within mankind between the dictates of morality and the surrender to one's basic instincts. David Gottlieb notes that many Kabbalists hold that the concepts of, e. They reject the notion that a satan or angels actually exist. Others hold that non-divine spiritual entities were indeed created by God as a means for exacting his will.
According to Kabbalists, humans cannot yet understand the infinity of God. Rather, there is God as revealed to humans corresponding to Zeir Anpin , and the rest of the infinity of God as remaining hidden from human experience corresponding to Arich Anpin. It is clear that with this postulate of an impersonal basic reality in God, which becomes a person—or appears as a person—only in the process of Creation and Revelation, Kabbalism abandons the personalistic basis of the Biblical conception of God It will not surprise us to find that speculation has run the whole gamut—from attempts to re-transform the impersonal En-Sof into the personal God of the Bible to the downright heretical doctrine of a genuine dualism between the hidden Ein Sof and the personal Demiurge of Scripture.
According to Isaac Luria —72 and other commentators on the Zohar, righteous Gentiles do not have this demonic aspect and are in many ways similar to Jewish souls. A number of prominent Kabbalists, e.
On the other hand, the souls of Jewish heretics have much more satanic energy than the worst of idol worshippers; this view is popular in some Hasidic circles, especially Satmar Hasidim. On the other hand, many prominent Kabbalists rejected this idea and believed in essential equality of all human souls. Menahem Azariah da Fano — , in his book Reincarnations of souls , provides many examples of non-Jewish Biblical figures being reincarnated into Jews and vice versa; the contemporary Habad rabbi and mystic Dov Ber Pinson teaches that distinctions between Jews and non-Jews in works such as the Tanya are not to be understood as literally referring to the external properties of a person what religious community they are born into , but rather as referring to the properties of souls as they can be re-incarnated in any religious community.
But one point of view is represented by the Hasidic work Tanya , in order to argue that Jews have a different character of soul: Another prominent Habad rabbi, Abraham Yehudah Khein born , believed that spiritually elevated Gentiles have essentially Jewish souls, "who just lack the formal conversion to Judaism", and that unspiritual Jews are "Jewish merely by their birth documents". David Halperin  argues that the collapse of Kabbalah's influence among Western European Jews over the course of the 17th and 18th century was a result of the cognitive dissonance they experienced between the negative perception of Gentiles found in some exponents of Kabbalah, and their own positive dealings with non-Jews, which were rapidly expanding and improving during this period due to the influence of the Enlightenment.
However, a number of renowned Kabbalists claimed the exact opposite, stressing universality of all human souls and providing universal interpretations of the Kabbalistic tradition, including its Lurianic version. In their view, Kabbalah transcends the borders of Judaism and can serve as a basis of inter-religious theosophy and a universal religion. Pinchas Elijah Hurwitz , a prominent Lithuanian-Galician Kabbalist of the 18th century and a moderate proponent of the Haskalah, called for brotherly love and solidarity between all nations, and believed that Kabbalah can empower everyone, Jews and Gentiles alike, with prophetic abilities.
The works of Abraham Cohen de Herrera — are full of references to Gentile mystical philosophers. Such approach was particularly common among the Renaissance and post-Renaissance Italian Jews. Late medieval and Renaissance Italian Kabbalists, such as Yohanan Alemanno , David Messer Leon and Abraham Yagel , adhered to humanistic ideals and incorporated teachings of various Christian and pagan mystics. A prime representative of this humanist stream in Kabbalah was Elijah Benamozegh , who explicitly praised Christianity, Islam, Zoroastrianism, Hinduism, as well as a whole range of ancient pagan mystical systems.
He believed that Kabbalah can reconcile the differences between the world religions, which represent different facets and stages of the universal human spirituality. In his writings, Benamozegh interprets the New Testament , Hadith , Vedas , Avesta and pagan mysteries according to the Kabbalistic theosophy. For a different perspective, see Wolfson. He argues that, while it is accurate to say that many Jews do and would find this distinction offensive, it is inaccurate to say that the idea has been totally rejected in all circles. As Wolfson has argued, it is an ethical demand on the part of scholars to continue to be vigilant with regard to this matter and in this way the tradition can be refined from within.
However, as explained above, many well known Kabbalists rejected the literal interpretation of these seemingly discriminatory views. They argued that the term "Jew" was to be interpreted metaphorically, as referring to the spiritual development of the soul, rather than the superficial denomination of the individual, and they added a chain of intermediary states between "Jews" and idol worshippers, or spiritualised the very definition of "Jews" and "non-Jews" and argued that a soul can be re-incarnated in different communities whether Jewish or not as much as within a single one.
The idea that there are ten divine sephirot could evolve over time into the idea that "God is One being, yet in that One being there are Ten" which opens up a debate about what the "correct beliefs" in God should be, according to Judaism. Saadia Gaon teaches in his book Emunot v'Deot that Jews who believe in reincarnation have adopted a non-Jewish belief. Maimonides 12th century rejected many of the texts of the Hekalot , particularly Shi'ur Qomah whose starkly anthropomorphic vision of God he considered heretical.
Nachmanides 13th century provides background to many kabbalistic ideas. His works offer in-depth of various concepts. In fact, an entire book, entitled Gevuras Aryeh , was authored by Yaakov Yehuda Aryeh Leib Frenkel and originally published in , specifically to explain and elaborate on the kabbalistic concepts addressed by Nachmanides in his commentary to the Five books of Moses. This is in contrast to certain popular understandings of modern Kabbalah which teach a form of panentheism, that his 'essence' is within everything.
He particularly singled out the Sefer Bahir, rejecting the attribution of its authorship to the tanna R. Leone di Modena , a 17th-century Venetian critic of Kabbalah, wrote that if we were to accept the Kabbalah, then the Christian trinity would indeed be compatible with Judaism, as the Trinity closely resembles the kabbalistic doctrine of the sephirot. This critique was in response to the knowledge that some European Jews of the period addressed individual sephirot in some of their prayers, although the practice was apparently uncommon.
Apologists explain that Jews may have been praying for and not necessarily to the aspects of Godliness represented by the sephirot. For example, Leibowitz called Kabbalah "a collection of "pagan superstitions" and "idol worship" in remarks given after receiving the Yakir Yerushalayim Award English: There is dispute among modern Haredim as to the status of Isaac Luria's, the Arizal 's Kabbalistic teachings.
While a portion of Modern Orthodox rabbis, Dor Daim and many students of the Rambam , completely reject Arizal's Kabbalistic teachings, as well as deny that the Zohar is authoritative, or from Shimon bar Yohai , all three of these groups completely accept the existence and validity of Ma'aseh Merkavah and Ma'aseh B'resheet mysticism. Their only disagreement concerns whether the Kabbalistic teachings promulgated today are accurate representations of those esoteric teachings to which the Talmud refers.
Within the Haredi Jewish community one can find both rabbis who sympathise with such a view, while not necessarily agreeing with it,  as well as rabbis who consider such a view absolute heresy. Eliyahu Dessler and Gedaliah Nadel maintained that it is acceptable to believe that the Zohar was not written by Shimon bar Yochai and that it had a late authorship. Kabbalah tended to be rejected by most Jews in the Conservative and Reform movements, though its influences were not completely eliminated. While it was generally not studied as a discipline, the Kabbalistic Kabbalat Shabbat service remained part of liberal liturgy, as did the Yedid Nefesh prayer.
Nevertheless, in the s, Saul Lieberman of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America is reputed to have introduced a lecture by Scholem on Kabbalah with a statement that Kabbalah itself was "nonsense", but the academic study of Kabbalah was "scholarship". This view became popular among many Jews, who viewed the subject as worthy of study, but who did not accept Kabbalah as teaching literal truths. Many western Jews insisted that their future and their freedom required shedding what they perceived as parochial orientalism.
They fashioned a Judaism that was decorous and strictly rational according to 19th-century European standards , denigrating Kabbalah as backward, superstitious, and marginal. However, in the late 20th century and early 21st century there has been a revival in interest in Kabbalah in all branches of liberal Judaism. The Kabbalistic 12th-century prayer Anim Zemirot was restored to the new Conservative Sim Shalom siddur , as was the B'rikh Shmeh passage from the Zohar, and the mystical Ushpizin service welcoming to the Sukkah the spirits of Jewish forbearers.
At the Reconstructionist rabbinical College, the only accredited seminary that has curricular requirements in Kabbalah, Joel Hecker is the full-time instructor teaching courses in Kabbalah and Hasidut. Ours is an age hungry for meaning, for a sense of belonging, for holiness. In that search, we have returned to the very Kabbalah our predecessors scorned. The stone that the builders rejected has become the head cornerstone Psalm Kabbalah was the last universal theology adopted by the entire Jewish people, hence faithfulness to our commitment to positive-historical Judaism mandates a reverent receptivity to Kabbalah.
The Reconstructionist movement, under the leadership of Arthur Green in the s and s, and with the influence of Zalman Schachter Shalomi, brought a strong openness to Kabbalah and hasidic elements that then came to play prominent roles in the Kol ha-Neshamah siddur series. Teaching of classic esoteric kabbalah texts and practice remained traditional until recent times, passed on in Judaism from master to disciple, or studied by leading rabbinic scholars.
This changed in the 20th century, through conscious reform and the secular openness of knowledge. In contemporary times kabbalah is studied in four very different, though sometimes overlapping, ways:. The two, unrelated organisations that translate the midth-century teachings of Yehuda Ashlag into a contemporary universalist message, have given kabbalah a public cross-religious profile:.
So equipped, we are today probably in a better position to understand the philosophical aspects of the kabbalah than were the kabbalists themselves. From the early 20th century, Neo-Hasidism expressed a non-Orthodox Jewish interest in Jewish mysticism, becoming organisational among Conservative, Reform and Reconstructionalist Jewish denominations from the s, through Jewish Renewal and the Chavurah movement. Arthur Green's translations from the religious writings of Hillel Zeitlin conceive the latter to be a precursor of contemporary neo-Hasidism. Since the 18th century, Jewish mystical development has continued in Hasidic Judaism, turning kabbalah into a social revival with texts that internalise mystical thought.
Among different schools, Chabad-Lubavitch and Breslav with related organisations, give outward looking spiritual resources and textual learning for secular Jews. The Intellectual Hasidism of Chabad most emphasises the spread and understanding of kabbalah through its explanation in Hasidic thought, articulating the Divine meaning within kabbalah through human rational analogies, uniting the spiritual and material, esoteric and exoteric in their Divine source:. The two are to be unified so one cannot detect where either begins or ends, for 'the Divine beginning is implanted in the end and the end in the beginning' Sefer Yetzira 1: Only both united complete the perfection desired by the Creator.
The writings of Abraham Isaac Kook — , first chief rabbi of Mandate Palestine and visionary, incorporate kabbalistic themes through his own poetic language and concern with human and divine unity. His influence is in the Religious-Zionist community, who follow his aim that the legal and imaginative aspects of Judaism should interfuse:. Kabbalah], the higher qualities of the depths of Godly life are reduced to trivia that do not penetrate the depth of the soul. When this happens, the most mighty force is missing from the soul of nation and individual, and Exile finds favor essentially We should not negate any conception based on rectitude and awe of Heaven of any form—only the aspect of such an approach that desires to negate the mysteries and their great influence on the spirit of the nation.
This is a tragedy that we must combat with counsel and understanding, with holiness and courage. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Cabala. Mainstream displacement of rationalism with Kabbalah. Selective influence on Western thought. Mysticism after Spanish expulsion. Mystics of 16th-century Safed. Mysticism in religious Zionism. Academic interest in Jewish mysticism. Non-Orthodox interest in Jewish mysticism. Kabbalistic reasons for the Mitzvot. Tanakh Torah Nevi'im Ketuvim.
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September Learn how and when to remove this template message. List of Jewish mysticism scholars. Retrieved 19 November What You Need to Know about Kabbalah. Retrieved 23 October A Very Short Introduction. God in Himself, apart from His relationship to the created world. Since every name which was given to God referred to one of the characteristics or attributes by which He revealed Himself to His creatures, or which they ascribed to Him, there is no name or epithet for God from the point of view of His own being.
Consequently, when the kabbalists wanted to be precise in their language they abstained from using names like Elohim , the Tetragrammaton , "the Holy One, blessed be He," and others. These names are all found either in the Written or the Oral Law. The Torah, however, refers only to God's manifestations and not to God's own being which is above and beyond His relationship to the created world. Therefore, neither in the Bible , nor in rabbinic tradition was there a term which could fulfill the need of the kabbalists in their speculations on the nature of God.
But the mystics had a vague tradition about it" Sefer Ma'arekhet ha-Elohut. The term Ein-Sof is found in kabbalistic literature after Union for Reform Judaism. Retrieved 25 October Historians of Judaism identify many schools of Jewish esotericism across time, each with its own unique interests and beliefs. These schools can be categorized further based on individual masters and their disciples.
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Center for the Study of Language and Information. Retrieved 26 October Between Ecstasy and Magic , p. A Practical Guide pp. It is a commentary on Otzrot Haim by Haim Vital. In the introduction he list five major schools of thought as to how to understand the Haim Vital's understanding of the concept of Tzimtzum. From the Periphery to the Centre: Azamra, Torah for our Time. Retrieved 20 June The Complete Neffesh Ha-chayyim: Studies in Traditional Jewish Thought , Ktav pub. Sha'ar TNT"A for a short explanation. The vast majority of the Lurianic system deals only with the complexities found in the world of Atzilut as is explained in the introductions to both Otzrot Haim and Eitz Haim.
Laenen, Jewish Mysticism , p. What is Practical Kabbalah? Archived from the original on He saw this as the cause of the contemporary mystical heresies of Sabbatai Zevi and Jacob Frank. Nikud is also mentioned in the Zohar despite the fact that it [is] from Geonic times! I later found this comment in the Mitpachas Seforim. I would just add that not only is nikud mentioned, but only the Tiberian Nikkud - the norm in Europe of the middle ages - is mentioned and not the Yerushalmi nikud or the Babylonian one — which was used then in the Middle East, and is still used by Yemenites today.
Rav A told me a remarkable piece of testimony: Retrieved 5 October Philosophical and Psychological Perspectives , Jason Aronson publishers, p. Outline of Judaism Index of Jewish history-related articles. Jews and Judaism Judaism portal Judaism — Wikipedia book. Christianity Hinduism Islam Jainism Judaism. Abrahamic prophecy Aggadah Denominations Kabbalah Philosophy. Retrieved from " https: Kabbalah Esoteric schools of thought Hebrew words and phrases Jewish culture Jewish mysticism Jewish theology Panentheism.
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