During the period of North—South division , Nanjing remained the capital of the Southern dynasties for more than two and a half centuries. During this time, Nanjing was the international hub of East Asia. A number of sculptural ensembles of that era, erected at the tombs of royals and other dignitaries, have survived in various degrees of preservation in Nanjing's northeastern and eastern suburbs, primarily in Qixia and Jiangning District. The city of Nanjing was razed after the Sui dynasty took over it.
Jiankang's textile industry burgeoned and thrived during the Song dynasty despite the constant threat of foreign invasions from the north by the Jurchen -led Jin dynasty. The court of Da Chu , a short-lived puppet state established by the Jurchens, and the court of Song were once in the city.
The first emperor of the Ming dynasty , Zhu Yuanzhang the Hongwu Emperor , who overthrew the Yuan dynasty, renamed the city Yingtian , rebuilt it, and made it the dynastic capital in The present-day City Wall of Nanjing was mainly built during that time and today it remains in good condition and has been well preserved. It is believed that Nanjing was the largest city in the world from to with a population of , in His successor, the Hongxi Emperor , wished to revert the relocation of the imperial capital from Nanjing to Beijing that had happened during the Yongle reign.
Hence, Nanjing still had itself imperial government with extremely limit power before Besides the city wall, other famous Ming-era structures in the city included the famous Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum and Porcelain Tower , although the latter was destroyed by the Taipings in the 19th century either in order to prevent a hostile faction from using it to observe and shell the city  or from superstitious fear of its geomantic properties. As the center of the empire, early-Ming Nanjing had worldwide connections.
The Tomb of the King of Boni , with a spirit way and a tortoise stele , was discovered in Yuhuatai District south of the walled city in , and has been restored. Over two centuries after the removal of the capital to Beijing, Nanjing was destined to become the capital of a Ming emperor one more time.
Zhu Yousong, however, fared a lot worse than his ancestor Zhu Yuanzhang three centuries earlier. Beset by factional conflicts, his regime could not offer effective resistance to Qing forces, when the Qing army, led by the Manchu prince Dodo approached Jiangnan the next spring. Under the Qing dynasty — , the Nanjing area was known as Jiangning and served as the seat of government for the Viceroy of Liangjiang.
Nanjing was threatened to be invaded by British troops during the close of the First Opium War , which was ended by the Treaty of Nanjing in Both the Qing viceroy and the Taiping king resided in buildings that would later be known as the Presidential Palace. When Qing forces led by Zeng Guofan retook the city in , a massive slaughter occurred in the city with over , estimated to have committed suicide or fought to the death.
After some time, he eventually thwarted its officials by buying a piece of property near the South Gate and Confucius Temple; to build the city's first Methodist Church, western hospital Blackstone Methodist Hospital and Boy's School. The Xinhai Revolution led to the founding of the Republic of China in January with Sun Yat-sen as the first provisional president and Nanking was selected as its new capital. However, the Qing Empire controlled large regions to the north, so revolutionaries asked Yuan Shikai to replace Sun as president in exchange for the abdication of Puyi , the Last Emperor.
Yuan demanded the capital be Beijing closer to his power base. The following decade is known as the Nanking decade. A few days before the fall of the city, the National Government of China was relocated to the southwestern city Chungking Chongqing and resumed Chinese resistance. On 21 April , Communist forces crossed the Yangtze River. After the establishment of the People's Republic of China in October , Nanjing was initially a province-level municipality, but it was soon merged into Jiangsu province and again became the provincial capital by replacing Zhenjiang which was transferred in , and retains that status to this day.
The Yangtze River flows past the west side and then the north side of Nanjing City, while the Ningzheng Ridge surrounds the north, east and south sides of the city. The northern part of the lower Yangtze drainage basin is the Huai River basin and the southern part is the Zhe River basin; they are connected by the Grand Canal east of Nanjing.
Nanjing borders Yangzhou to the northeast one town downstream when following the north bank of the Yangtze ; Zhenjiang to the east one town downstream when following the south bank of the Yangtze ; and Changzhou to the southeast. On its western boundary is Anhui province, where Nanjing borders five prefecture-level cities: Chuzhou to the northwest, Wuhu , Chaohu and Ma'anshan to the west and Xuancheng to the southwest. The four seasons are distinct, with damp conditions seen throughout the year, very hot and muggy summers, cold, damp winters, and in between, spring and autumn are of reasonable length.
Along with Chongqing and Wuhan , Nanjing is traditionally referred to as one of the " Three Furnacelike Cities " along the Yangtze River for the perennially high temperatures in the summertime. Typhoons are uncommon but possible in the late stages of summer and early part of autumn. The annual mean temperature is around Nanjing is endowed with rich natural resources, which include more than 40 kinds of minerals.
Nanjing also possesses abundant water resources, both from the Yangtze River and groundwater.
Nanking was the old capital of China before Peking, and is situated in a fine locality which comprises high mountains, deep water and a vast level plain—a rare site to be found in any part of the world. It also lies at the center of a very rich country on both sides of the lower Yangtze. To be more exact, surrounded by the Yangtze River and mountains, the urban area of the city enjoys its scenic natural environment. Xuanwu Lake and Mochou Lake are located in the center of the city and are easily accessible to the public, while Purple Mountain is covered with deciduous and coniferous forests preserving various historical and cultural sites.
A lack of cold air flow, combined with slow-moving air masses carrying industrial emissions, collected airborne pollutants to form a thick layer of smog over the region. At present, the full name of the government of Nanjing is "People's Government of Nanjing City" and the city is under the one-party rule of the CPC , with the CPC Nanjing Committee Secretary as the de facto governor of the city and the mayor as the executive head of the government working under the secretary.
The sub-provincial city of Nanjing is divided into 11 districts. At the time of the census , the total population of the City of Nanjing was 8. The OECD estimated the encompassing metropolitan area at the time as The birth rate was 8. The urban area had a population of 6. The sex ratio of the city population was As in most of eastern China the official ethnic makeup of Nanjing is predominantly Han nationality In , 77, residents belonged to officially defined minorities, among which the vast majority 64, were Hui , contributing The second and third largest minority groups were Manchu 2, and Zhuang Most of the minority nationalities resided in Jianye District, comprising 9.
There was a massive cultivating in the area of Nanjing from the Three Kingdoms period to Southern dynasties. At first, the landless peasants benefited from it, then the senior officials and aristocratic families. Since large numbers of immigrants flooded into the area, reclamation was quite common in its remote parts, which promoted its agricultural development.
The craft industries, by contrast, had a faster growth. Especially the textiles section, there were about , craftsmen by the late Qing. Besides, minting, papermaking, shipbuilding grew initially since the Three Kingdoms period. As Nanjing was the capital of the Ming dynasty, the industries further expanded, where both state-owned and numerous private businesses served the imperial court. Moreover, the trade in Nanjing was also flourishing. However, the economic developments were almost wiped out by the Taiping Rebellion's catastrophe.
Into the first half of the twentieth century after the establishment of ROC, Nanjing gradually shifted from being a production hub towards being a heavy consumption city, mainly because of the rapid expansion of its wealthy population after Nanjing once again regained the political spotlight of China. A number of huge department stores such as Zhongyang Shangchang sprouted up, attracting merchants from all over China to sell their products in Nanjing.
In , the revenue generated by the food and entertainment industry in the city exceeded the sum of the output of the manufacturing and agriculture industry. One third of the city population worked in the service industry ,. In the s after PRC was established by CPC, the government invested heavily in the city to build a series of state-owned heavy industries , as part of the national plan of rapid industrialization , converting it into a heavy industry production center of east China.
From the s to s there were Five Pillar Industries, namely, electronics, cars , petrochemical, iron and steel, and power, each with big state-owned firms.
After the Reform and Opening recovering market economy, the state-owned enterprises found themselves incapable of competing with efficient multinational firms and local private firms, hence were either mired in heavy debt or forced into bankruptcy or privatization and this resulted in large numbers of layoff workers who were technically not unemployed but effectively jobless. The current economy of the city is basically newly developed based on the past.
Service industries are dominating, accounting for about 60 percent of the GDP of the city, and financial industry, culture industry and tourism industry are top 3 of them. Industries of information technology, energy saving and environmental protection, new energy, smart power grid and intelligent equipment manufacturing have become pillar industries.
The city has also attracted foreign investment, multinational firms such as Siemens , Ericsson , Volkswagen , Iveco , A. In recent years, Nanjing has been developing its economy, commerce, industry, as well as city construction. The average urban resident's disposable income was RMB 36,, while the average rural resident's net income was RMB 14, The registered urban unemployment rate was 3. Nanjing's Gross Domestic Product ranked 12th in in China, and its overall competence ranked 6th in mainland and 8th including Taiwan and Hong Kong in Nanjing is the transportation hub in eastern China and the downstream Yangtze River area.
Different means of transportation constitute a three-dimensional transport system that includes land, water and air. As in most other Chinese cities, public transportation is the dominant mode of travel of the majority of the citizens. As of October , Nanjing had four bridges and two tunnels over the Yangtze River , which are tying districts north of the river with the city center on the south bank.
Nanjing is an important railway hub in eastern China. Nanjing is connected to the national high-speed railway network by Beijing—Shanghai High-Speed Railway and Shanghai—Wuhan—Chengdu Passenger Dedicated Line , with several more high-speed rail lines under construction.
Nanjing Railway Station was first built in As an important regional hub in the Yangtze River Delta , Nanjing is well-connected by over 60 state and provincial highways to all parts of China. The total road coverage density of the city is The two roads cross in the city center, Xinjiekou. The city also boasts an efficient network of public transportation, which mainly consists of bus, taxi and metro systems.
The bus network, which is currently run by three companies since , provides more than routes covering all parts of the city and suburban areas. The city is planning to complete a line Metro and light-rail system by Nanjing's airport, Lukou International Airport , serves both national and international flights. In , Nanjing airport handled 15,, passengers and , Dajiaochang Airport is still used as a military air base. Go there and from there move down one area. You ll nanjing dating a music box and you can use the key to open it. This is a new element in the series. Loves came second and likes third.
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Before the screen cuts to black, Forte is both seen and heard nanjing dating into tears, as Lest stands there shaken. Xiao Pai Battle Axe.
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