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Seven Seas Sale View Offer. Suites Are Best View Offer. Your upcoming vacation View all. View Vacation Make Payment. Because the islands of Hawaii are distant from other land habitats, life is thought to have arrived there by wind, waves i. This isolation , in combination with the diverse environment including extreme altitudes, tropical climates, and arid shorelines , allowed for the evolution of new endemic flora and fauna. Hawaii has more endangered species and has lost a higher percentage of its endemic species than any other U.
The islands are well known for the environmental diversity that occurs on high mountains within a trade winds field. On a single island, the climate around the coasts can range from dry tropical less than 20 inches or millimeters annual rainfall to wet tropical; on the slopes, environments range from tropical rainforest more than inches or 5, millimeters per year , through a temperate climate, to alpine conditions with a cold, dry climate. The rainy climate impacts soil development, which largely determines ground permeability, affecting the distribution of streams and wetlands.
Several areas in Hawaii are under the protection of the National Park Service. Bush on June 15, Hawaii's climate is typical for the tropics, although temperatures and humidity tend to be less extreme because of near-constant trade winds from the east.
Most of Hawaii experiences only two seasons; the dry season runs from May to October and the wet season is from October to April. Hawaii is the only state to have never recorded sub-zero Fahrenheit temperatures. Windward sides face cloud cover. Hawaii is one of four U. Along with Texas, Hawaii had formal, international diplomatic recognition as a nation. Hawaii was an independent republic from until August 12, , when it officially became a territory of the United States. Hawaii was admitted as a U.
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Based on archaeological evidence, the earliest habitation of the Hawaiian Islands dates to around CE, probably by Polynesian settlers from the Marquesas Islands. The date of the human discovery and habitation of the Hawaiian Islands is the subject of academic debate. The history of the islands is marked by a slow, steady growth in population and the size of the chiefdoms , which grew to encompass whole islands. Ancient Hawaii was a caste -based society, much like that of Hindus in India. It is possible that Spanish explorers arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in the 16th century— years before Captain James Cook 's first documented visit in Some scholars have dismissed these claims due to a lack of credibility.
The exact route was kept secret to protect the Spanish trade monopoly against competing powers. The arrival of British explorer James Cook was the first documented contact by a European explorer with Hawaii. Cook published the islands' location and rendered the native name as Owyhee. This spelling lives on in Owyhee County , Idaho. It was named after three native Hawaiian members of a trapping party who went missing in that area. The Owyhee Mountains were also named for them.
Cook visited the Hawaiian Islands twice. As he prepared for departure after his second visit in , a quarrel ensued as Cook took temple idols and fencing as "firewood",  and a minor chief and his men took a ship's boat. This tactic had worked in Tahiti and other islands. They departed without the ship's boat.
After Cook's visit and the publication of several books relating his voyages, the Hawaiian islands attracted many European visitors: These visitors introduced diseases to the once-isolated islands, causing the Hawaiian population to drop precipitously. By , disease, famine and wars between the chiefs killed more than half of the Native Hawaiian population.
Historical records indicated the earliest Chinese immigrants to Hawaii originated from Guangdong Province ; a few sailors arrived in with Captain Cook's journey and more arrived in with an American trader, who settled in Hawaii in the late 18th century. It is said that leprosy was introduced by Chinese workers by ; as with the other new infectious diseases, it proved damaging to the Hawaiians.
During the s, and s, chiefs often fought for power. After a series of battles that ended in , all inhabited islands were subjugated under a single ruler, who became known as King Kamehameha the Great. He established the House of Kamehameha , a dynasty that ruled the kingdom until They used their influence to end many traditional practices of the people.
Other missionaries and their descendants became active in commercial and political affairs, leading to conflicts between the monarchy and its restive American subjects.
The best known were Father Damien and Mother Marianne Cope , both of whom were canonized in the early 21st century as Roman Catholic saints. Lunalilo died the next year, also without naming an heir. After riots broke out, the United States and Britain landed troops on the islands to restore order. Drafted by white businessmen and lawyers, the document stripped the king of much of his authority. It established a property qualification for voting that effectively disenfranchised most Hawaiians and immigrant laborers and favored the wealthier, white elite.
Resident whites were allowed to vote but resident Asians were not. As the Constitution was signed under threat of violence, it is known as the Bayonet Constitution. Stevens , responding to a request from the Committee of Safety, summoned a company of U. The Queen's soldiers did not resist. According to historian William Russ, the monarchy was unable to protect itself. Stevens conspired with U.
Controversy ensued in the following years as the Queen tried to regain her throne. Congress conducted an independent investigation, and on February 26, , submitted the Morgan Report , which found all parties, including Minister Stevens—with the exception of the Queen—"not guilty" and not responsible for the coup. The resolution apologized and said that the overthrow was illegal in the following phrase: After William McKinley won the U.
McKinley was open to persuasion by U. He met with three non-native annexationists: After negotiations in June , Secretary of State John Sherman agreed to a treaty of annexation with these representatives of the Republic of Hawaii. Senate never ratified the treaty. Despite the opposition of most native Hawaiians,  the Newlands Resolution was used to annex the Republic to the U. The Newlands Resolution was passed by the House on June 15, , by votes in favor to 91 against, and by the Senate on July 6, , by a vote of 42 to Despite several attempts to become a state, Hawaii remained a territory for 60 years.
Plantation owners and capitalists, who maintained control through financial institutions such as the Big Five , found territorial status convenient because they remained able to import cheap, foreign labor. Such immigration and labor practices were prohibited in many states. Puerto Rican immigration to Hawaii began in , when Puerto Rico's sugar industry was devastated by a hurricane , causing a worldwide shortage of sugar and a huge demand for sugar from Hawaii.
Hawaiian sugarcane plantation owners began to recruit experienced, unemployed laborers in Puerto Rico. Two waves of Korean immigration to Hawaii occurred in the 20th century. The first wave arrived between and ; the second wave began in after President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Immigration and Nationality Act of , which removed racial and national barriers and resulted in significantly altering the demographic mix in the U. The attack on Pearl Harbor and other military and naval installations, carried out by aircraft and by midget submarines , brought the United States into World War II.
In the s, the power of the plantation owners was broken by the descendants of immigrant laborers, who were born in Hawaii and were U. They voted against the Hawaii Republican Party , strongly supported by plantation owners. The new majority voted for the Democratic Party of Hawaii , which dominated territorial and state politics for more than 40 years. Eager to gain full representation in Congress and the Electoral College, residents actively campaigned for statehood. In Washington there was talk that Hawaii would be a Republican Party stronghold so it was matched with the admission of Alaska, seen as a Democratic Party stronghold.
These predictions turned out to be inaccurate; today, Hawaii votes Democratic predominantly, while Alaska votes Republican. Eisenhower signed into law. On June 27, , a referendum asked residents of Hawaii to vote on the statehood bill; The United Nations' Special Committee on Decolonization later removed Hawaii from its list of non-self-governing territories.
After attaining statehood, Hawaii quickly modernized through construction and a rapidly growing tourism economy. Later, state programs promoted Hawaiian culture. After Europeans and mainland Americans first arrived during the Kingdom of Hawaii period, the overall population of Hawaii, until that time composed solely of indigenous Hawaiians, fell dramatically. The indigenous Hawaiian population succumbed to foreign diseases, declining from , in the s, to 60, in the s, to 24, in The unmixed indigenous Hawaiian population has still not restored itself to its , pre-contact level.
As of [update] , Hawaii had an estimated population of 1,,; an increase of 12, from the previous year and an increase of 71, 5. This includes a natural increase of 48, 96, births minus 47, deaths and an increase due to net migration of 16, people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 30,; migration within the country produced a net loss of 13, people. The center of population of Hawaii is located between the two islands of O'ahu and Moloka'i.
Large numbers of Native Hawaiians have moved to Las Vegas , which has been called the "ninth island" of Hawaii. Hawaii has a de facto population of over 1. The average projected lifespan of people born in Hawaii in is According to the United States Census, Hawaii had a population of 1,, The state's population identified as Hawaii has the highest percentage of Asian Americans and multiracial Americans and the lowest percentage of White Americans of any state.
It is the only state where Asian Americans identify as the largest ethnic group. Mexican Americans number over 35, 2. Eurasian Americans are a prominent mixed-race group, numbering about 66, 4. The multi-racial population outnumbers the non-Hispanic white population by about 10, people. The five largest European ancestries in Hawaii are German 7. Hawaii is a majority-minority state. It was expected to be one of three states that will not have a non-Hispanic white plurality in ; the other two are California and New Mexico.
The third group of foreigners to arrive in Hawaii were from China. Chinese workers on Western trading ships settled in Hawaii starting in In , the first American missionaries arrived to preach Christianity and teach the Hawaiians Western ways. Many are descendants of immigrants brought to work on the sugarcane plantations in the mid-to-late 19th century. The first Japanese immigrants arrived in Hawaii on June 19, They were not approved by the then-current Japanese government because the contract was between a broker and the Tokugawa shogunate —by then replaced by the Meiji Restoration.
Almost 13, Portuguese migrants had arrived by ; they also worked on the sugarcane plantations.
English and Hawaiian are listed as Hawaii's official languages in the state's constitution, in Article XV, Section 4. As of the Census, After English, other languages popularly spoken in the state are Tagalog , Japanese and Ilocano. Significant numbers of European immigrants and their descendants also speak their native languages; the most numerous are German, Portuguese, Italian and French. The Hawaiian language has about 2, native speakers, about 0.
These Polynesians remained in the islands; they eventually became the Hawaiian people and their languages evolved into the Hawaiian language. That form was developed mainly by American Protestant missionaries between and They assigned to the Hawaiian phonemes letters from the Latin alphabet.
Interest in Hawaiian increased significantly in the late 20th century. With the help of the Office of Hawaiian Affairs, specially designated immersion schools in which all subjects would be taught in Hawaiian were established. The University of Hawaii developed a Hawaiian language graduate studies program.
Municipal codes were altered to favor Hawaiian place and street names for new civic developments. Hawaiian distinguishes between long and short vowel sounds. It is written as a symbol similar to the apostrophe or left-hanging opening single quotation mark. During the 19th century, the increase in immigration—mainly from China, Japan, Portugal—especially from the Azores and Madeira , and Spain—catalyzed the development of a hybrid variant of English known to its speakers as pidgin. By the early 20th century, pidgin speakers had children who acquired it as their first language.
HCE speakers use some Hawaiian words without those words being considered archaic. For example, tuna fish is often called by its Hawaiian name, ahi. HCE speakers have modified the meanings of some English words. For example, "aunty" and "uncle" may either refer to any adult who is a friend or be used to show respect to an elder. Syntax and grammar follow distinctive rules different from those of General American English. For example, instead of "it is hot today, isn't it? During the surfing boom in Hawaii, HCE was influenced by surfer slang.
Some HCE expressions, such as brah and da kine , have found their ways elsewhere through surfing communities. Christianity is the most widespread religion in Hawaii. It is mainly represented by various Protestants , Roman Catholics and Mormons.
See Chinese in Hawaii. The Seal of Hawaii. In the s, the power of the plantation owners was broken by the descendants of immigrant laborers, who were born in Hawaii and were U. While gold mining itself was unprofitable for most diggers and mine owners, some people made large fortunes, and the merchants and transportation facilities made large profits. Municipal codes were altered to favor Hawaiian place and street names for new civic developments. Retrieved October 29, Meeting the Global Challenge.
Buddhism is the second most popular religion, especially among the archipelago's Japanese community. Unaffilliated account for one-quarter of the population. The largest denominations by number of adherents were the Roman Catholic Church with , adherents in  and the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 68, adherents in The third-largest denominational group is the United Church of Christ , with congregations and 20, members. The Southern Baptist Convention has congregations and 18, members in Hawaii.
According to data provided by religious establishments, religion in Hawaii in was distributed as follows: A Pew poll found that the religious composition was as follows:. Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.
Hawaii has had a long history of queer identities. How would you know if he was going to be the warrior that would protect you at all costs, if he wasn't your lover? The number of same-sex couple households in was 3,; a The history of Hawaii's economy can be traced through a succession of dominant industries; sandalwood ,  whaling ,  sugarcane, pineapple , the military, tourism and education. Since statehood in , tourism has been the largest industry, contributing These industries play a small role in the Hawaiian economy, due to the shipping distance to viable markets, such as the West Coast of the contiguous U.
The state's food exports include coffee, macadamia nuts, pineapple, livestock, sugarcane and honey. By weight, honey bees may be the state's most valuable export. Hawaii's relatively consistent climate has attracted the seed industry, which is able to test three generations of crops per year on the islands, compared with one or two on the mainland. Hawaii residents pay the most per person in state taxes in the United States. The Hawaii Tax Foundation considers the state's tax burden too high, which it says contributes to higher prices and the perception of an unfriendly business climate.
State Senator Sam Slom says state taxes are comparatively higher than other states because the state government handles education, health care, and social services that are usually handled at a county or municipal level in most other states. The cost of living in Hawaii, specifically Honolulu, is high compared to that of most major U. While some online stores offer free shipping on orders to Hawaii, many merchants exclude Hawaii, Alaska, Puerto Rico and certain other U.
Average electricity prices in October The median home value in Hawaii in the U. The sale price of single family homes in Hawaii was the highest of any U. Hawaii's very high cost of living is the result of several interwoven factors of the global economy in addition to domestic U. Like other regions with desirable weather throughout the year, such as areas of California , Arizona and Florida , Hawaii's residents can be considered to be subject to a " Sunshine tax ". This situation is further exacerbated by the natural factors of geography and world distribution that lead to higher prices for goods due to increased shipping costs, a problem which many island states and territories suffer from as well.
The higher costs to ship goods across an ocean may be further increased by the requirements of the Jones Act , which generally requires that goods be transported between places within the U. Jones Act-compliant vessels are often more expensive to build and operate than foreign equivalents, which can drive up shipping costs. While the Jones Act does not affect transportation of goods to Hawaii directly from Asia, this type of trade is nonetheless not common; this is a result of other primarily economic reasons including additional costs associated with stopping over in Hawaii e.
Therefore, Hawaii relies on receiving most inbound goods on Jones Act-qualified vessels originating from the U. Hawaiian consumers ultimately bear the expense of transporting goods imposed by the Jones Act. This law makes Hawaii less competitive than West Coast ports as a shopping destination for tourists from countries with much higher taxes like Japan, even though prices for Asian-manufactured goods should be cheaper because Hawaii is much closer than mainland states to Asia.
The aboriginal culture of Hawaii is Polynesian. Hawaii represents the northernmost extension of the vast Polynesian Triangle of the south and central Pacific Ocean. While traditional Hawaiian culture remains as vestiges in modern Hawaiian society, there are re-enactments of the ceremonies and traditions throughout the islands. Plant and animal food sources are imported from around the world for agricultural use in Hawaii. Poi , a starch made by pounding taro , is one of the traditional foods of the islands. Spam musubi is an example of the fusion of ethnic cuisine that developed on the islands among the mix of immigrant groups and military personnel.
In the s, a group of chefs developed Hawaii regional cuisine as a contemporary fusion cuisine. Some key customs and etiquette in Hawaii are as follows: