https://grupoavigase.com/includes/108/5954-chica-busca.php When the war was declared and the two armies were facing each other, Arjuna realized that he would have to kill his dear granduncle Bhishma , on whose lap he had played as a child and his respected teacher Drona , who had held his hand and taught him how to hold the bow and arrow, making him the greatest archer in the world.
Arjuna felt weak and sickened at the prospect of killing his entire family, including his cousins and friends such as Ashwatthama. Despondent and confused about what is right and what is wrong, Arjuna turned to Krishna for divine advice and teachings. Krishna, who Arjuna chose as his charioteer, advised him of his duty. This conversation forms the Bhagavad Gita , one of the most respected religious and philosophical texts in the Hindu religion.
Krishna instructs Arjuna not to yield to degrading impotence and to fight his kin, for that was the only way to righteousness. He also reminded him that this was a war between righteousness and unrighteousness dharma and adharma and it was Arjuna's duty to slay anyone who supported the cause of unrighteousness, or sin. Krishna then revealed his divine form and explained that he is born on earth in each aeon when evil raises its head.
It also forms one of the foremost treatise on the several aspects of Yoga and mystical knowledge. Before the battle began, Yudhishthira did something unexpected. He suddenly dropped his weapons, took off his armour and started walking towards the Kaurava army with folded hands in prayer. The Pandava brothers and the Kauravas looked on in disbelief, thinking Yudhishthira was surrendering before the first arrow was shot. Yudhishthira's purpose became clear, however, when he fell on Bhishma's feet to seek his blessing for success in battle. Bhishma, grandfather to both the Pandavas and Kauravas, blessed Yudhishthira.
Yudhishthira returned to his chariot and the battle was ready to commence. When the battle was commenced, Arjuna created a Vajra formation and Bhishma went through the Pandava formation wreaking havoc wherever he went, but Abhimanyu , Arjuna's son, seeing this went straight at Bhishma, defeated his bodyguards and directly attacked the commander of the Kaurava forces. However, the young warrior couldn't match the prowess of Bhishma, and was defeated. The Pandavas suffered heavy losses and were defeated at the end of the first day.
Virata 's sons, Uttara and Sweta, were slain by Shalya and Bhishma. Krishna consoled the distraught Yudhishthira saying that eventually victory would be his. The second day of the war commenced with a confident Kaurava army facing the Pandavas. Arjuna, realizing that something needed to be done quickly to reverse the Pandava losses, decided that he had to try to kill Bhishma. Krishna skillfully located Bhishma's chariot and steered Arjuna toward him.
Arjuna tried to engage Bhishma in a duel, but the Kaurava soldiers placed a cordon around Bhishma to protect him and attacked Arjuna to try to prevent him from directly engaging Bhishma. Arjuna and Bhishma fought a fierce battle that raged for hours. Drona and Dhrishtadyumna similarly engaged in a duel in which Drona defeated Dhrishtadyumna. Bhima intervened and rescued Dhrishtadyumna.
Duryodhana sent the troops of Kalinga to attack Bhima and most of them, including the king of Kalinga, lost their lives at his hands. Bhishma immediately came to relieve the battered Kalinga forces.
Satyaki , who was assisting Bhima, shot at Bhishma's charioteer and killed him. Bhishma's horses, with no one to control them, bolted carrying Bhishma away from the battlefield. The Kaurava army had suffered great losses at the end of the second day, and were considered defeated.
On the third day, Bhishma arranged the Kaurava forces in the formation of an eagle with himself leading from the front, while Duryodhana's forces protected the rear. Bhishma wanted to be sure of avoiding any mishap. The Pandavas countered this by using the crescent formation with Bhima and Arjuna at the head of the right and the left horns, respectively. The Kauravas concentrated their attack on Arjuna's position. Arjuna's chariot was soon covered with arrows and javelins.
Arjuna, with amazing skill, built a fortification around his chariot with an unending stream of arrows from his bow. Abhimanyu and Satyaki combined to defeat the Gandhara forces of Shakuni. Bhima and his son Ghatotkacha attacked Duryodhana in the rear. Bhima's arrows hit Duryodhana, who swooned in his chariot. His charioteer immediately drove them out of danger.
Duryodhana's forces, however, saw their leader fleeing the battlefield and soon scattered. Bhishma soon restored order and Duryodhana returned to lead the army. He was angry at Bhishma, however, at what he saw as leniency towards the five Pandava brothers and spoke harshly at his commander. Bhishma, stung by this unfair charge, fell on the Pandava army with renewed vigor. It was as if there were more than one Bhishma on the field.
Arjuna attacked Bhishma trying to restore order. Arjuna and Bhishma again engaged in a fierce duel, however Arjuna's heart was not in the battle as he did not like the idea of attacking his grand-uncle. During the battle, Bhishma killed numerous soldiers of Arjuna's armies. The fourth-day of the battle was noted for the valour shown by Bhima. Bhishma commanded the Kaurava army to move on the offensive from the outset. While Abhimanyu was still in his mother's womb, Arjuna had taught Abhimanyu on how to break and enter the chakra vyuha.
But, before explaining how to exit the chakra Vyuha, Arjuna was interrupted by Krishna another story is that Abhimanyu's mother falls asleep while Arjuna was explaining the chakra vyuha exit strategy. Thus from birth, Abhimanyu only knew how to enter the Chakra vyuha but didn't know how to come out of it. When the Kauravas formed the chakravyuha, Abhimanyu entered it but was surrounded and attacked by a number of Kaurava princes. Arjuna joined the fray in aid of Abhimanyu. Bhima appeared on the scene with his mace aloft and started attacking the Kauravas.
Duryodhana sent a huge force of elephants at Bhima. When Bhima saw the mass of elephants approaching, he got down from his chariot and attacked them singlehandedly with his iron mace. They scattered and stampeded into the Kaurava forces killing many. Duryodhana ordered an all-out attack on Bhima. Bhima withstood all that was thrown at him and attacked Duryodhana's brothers, killing eight of them. Bhima was soon struck by an arrow from Dushasana, the second-eldest Kaurava, on the chest and sat down in his chariot dazed. Duryodhana was distraught at the loss of his brothers.
Duryodhana, overwhelmed by sorrow at the loss of his brothers, went to Bhishma at the end of the fourth day of the battle and asked his commander how could the Pandavas, facing a superior force against them, still prevail and win. Bhishma replied that the Pandavas had justice on their side and advised Duryodhana to seek peace. When the battle resumed on the fifth day, the slaughter continued.
The Pandava army again suffered against Bhishma's attacks. Satyaki bore the brunt of Drona 's attacks and could not withstand them. Bhima drove by and rescued Satyaki.
Arjuna fought and killed thousands of soldiers sent by Duryodhana to attack him. Bhima engaged in a fierce duel with Bhishma, which remained inconclusive. Drupada and his son Shikandi drove to aid Bhima with his fight with Bhishma, but they were stopped by Vikarna, one of Duryodhana's brothers, who attacked them with his arrows, injuring both father and son badly. The unimaginable carnage continued during the ensuing days of the battle.
The sixth day was marked by a prodigious slaughter. Drona caused immeasurable loss of life on the Pandava side. The formations of both the armies were broken. However, Bhima managed to penetrate the Kaurava formation and attacked Duryodhana. Duryodhana was defeated, but was rescued by others. The Upapandavas sons of Draupadi fought with Ashwathama and destroyed his chariot. The day's battle ended with the defeat of the Kauravas.
On the 7th day, Drona slew Shanka, a son of Virata. Yuyuthsu was injured by Kripacharya in a sword fight. Nakula and Sahadeva fight Duryodhana's brothers but are overwhelmed by the number of them. The terrific carnage continued, and the day's battle ended with the victory of the Kauravas. On the 8th day, Bhima killed 17 of Dhritarashtra's sons. Iravan , the son of Arjuna and the snake-princess Ulupi killed 5 brothers of Shakuni, princes hailing from Gandhara.
Duryodhana sent the Rakshasa fighter Alamvusha to kill Iravan, and the latter was killed by the Rakshasa after a fierce fight. The day ended with a crushing defeat of the Kauravas. On the 9th day, Krishna, overwhelmed by anger at the apparent inability of Arjuna to defeat Bhishma , rushed towards the Kaurava commander, jumping furiously from the chariot taking the wheel of a fallen chariot in his hands. Realizing that the war could not be won as long as Bhishma was standing, Krishna suggested the strategy of placing a eunuch in the field to face him. Some sources however state that it was Yudhishthira who visited Bhishma's camp at night asking him for help.
To this Bhishma said that he would not fight a eunuch. On the tenth day, the Pandavas, unable to withstand Bhishma's prowess, decided to put Shikhandi , who had been a woman in a prior life in front of Bhishma, as Bhishma has taken a vow not to attack a woman. Shikhandi's arrows fell on Bhishma without hindrance. Arjuna positioned himself behind Shikhandi, protecting himself from Bhishma's attack and aimed his arrows at the weak points in Bhishma's armour. Soon, with arrows sticking from every part of his body, the great warrior fell from his chariot. His body did not touch the ground as it was held aloft by the arrows protruding from his body.
The Kauravas and Pandavas gathered around Bhishma and at his request, Arjuna placed three arrows under Bhishma's head to support it. Bhishma had promised his father, King Shantanu, that he would live until Hastinapur were secured from all directions. To keep this promise, Bhishma used the boon of "Ichcha Mrityu" self wished death given to him by his father. After the war was over, when Hastinapur had become safe from all sides and after giving lessons on politics and Vishnu Sahasranama to the Pandavas, Bhishma died on the first day of Uttarayana.
With Bhishma unable to continue, Karna entered the battlefield, much to Duryodhana's joy. He made Drona the supreme commander of the Kaurava forces, according to Karna's suggestion.
So the mistake was carried forward and real Phalguna was called as Magha. Many scholars have taken this evidence, but taking only 20 years per generation they fixed the date of Krsna as years before Chandragupta. So Pusya was the first Naksatra and Uttara Asad ha was the 1 4th. He says it in a code language. Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link.
Duryodhana wanted to capture Yudhishthira alive. Killing Yudhishthira in battle would only enrage the Pandavas more, whereas holding him as hostage would be strategically useful. Drona formulated his battle plans for the eleventh day to this aim. He cut down Yudhishthira's bow and the Pandava army feared that their leader would be taken prisoner. Arjuna rushed to the scene, however and with a flood of arrows stopped Drona. With his attempts to capture Yudhishthira thwarted, Drona confided to Duryodhana that it would be difficult as long as Arjuna was around. So, he ordered the Samsaptakas the Trigarta warriors headed by Susharma, who had vowed to either conquer or die to keep Arjuna busy in a remote part of the battlefield, an order which they readily obeyed, on account of their old hostilities with the Pandava scion.
However, Arjuna managed to defeat them before the afternoon, and then faced Bhagadatta , the ruler of Pragjyotisha modern day Assam , India , who had been creating havoc among the Pandava troops, defeating great warriors like Bhima , Abhimanyu and Satyaki. Bhagadatta fought with Arjuna riding on his gigantic elephant named Supratika.
Arjuna and Bhagadatta fought a fierce duel, and finally Arjuna succeeded in defeating and killing his antagonist. Drona continued his attempts to capture Yudhishthira. The Pandavas, however, fought hard and delivered severe blows to the Kaurava army, frustrating Drona's plans. His target remained the same, that is, to capture Yudhishthira. Among the Pandavas, only Arjuna and Krishna knew how to penetrate this formation, and in order to prevent them from doing so, the Samsaptakas led by Susharma again challenged Arjuna, and kept him busy at a remote part of the battlefield the whole day.
Arjuna killed thousands of Samsaptakasa, however, he couldn't exterminate all of them. On the other side of the battlefield, the remaining four Pandavas and their allies were finding it impossible to break Drona's Chakra formation. Abhimanyu knew the strategy of entering the Chakra formation, but did not know how to exit it. So, the Pandava heroes followed him to protect him from any potential danger. As soon as, however, Abhimanyu entered the formation, King Jayadratha stopped the Pandava warriors.
He held at bay the whole Pandava army, thanks to a boon obtained from Lord Shiva , and defeated Bhima and Satyaki. Some of them included Vrihadvala the ruler of Kosala , the ruler of Asmaka , Martikavata the son of Kritavarma , Rukmaratha the son of Shalya , Shalya's younger brother, Lakshmana the son of Duryodhana and many others. He also managed to defeat great warriors like Drona , Ashwatthama , Kritavarma and others.
Facing the prospect of the complete annihilation of their army, the Kaurava commanders devised a strategy to deter Abhimanyu from causing further damage to their force. According to Drona's instructions, six warriors together attacked Abhimanyu the warriors included Drona himself, Karna , Kripa and Kritavarma , and deprived Abhimanyu of his chariot, bow, sword and shield. Abhimanyu, however, determined to fight, picked up a mace, smashed Ashwatthma's chariot upon which the latter fled , killed one of Shakuni's brothers and numerous troops and elephants, and finally encountered the son of Dussasana in a mace-fight.
The latter was a strong mace-fighter, and an exhausted Abhimanyu was defeated and killed by his adversary. Upon learning of the death of his son, Arjuna vowed to kill Jayadratha on the morrow before the battle ended at sunset, otherwise he would throw himself into the fire.
While searching for Jayadrath on the battlefield, Arjuna slew an akshauhini battle formation that consisted of 21, chariots Sanskrit ratha ; 21, elephants; 65, cavalry and , infantry of Kaurav soldiers.
Divergence of views regarding the Mahabharata war is due to the absence of reliable history of the ancient period. This is. Dating back to "remote antiquity", it is still a living force in the life of the Indian masses. Incidently, the dating of the Mahabharat War has been a.
By Shakuni's plot Duryodhana hid Jayadrath in their camp as if Arjuna failed t kill Jayadrath he would walk into the fire himself according to his vow which would make war easier for the Kauravas. Lord Krishna fakes sunset using his sudarshan chakra and all the Kauravas insults and laughs at Arjuna remembering his vow to walk into fire if, he fails to kill Jayadrath. And Jayadratha knowing the sunset being informed by soldiers, starts towards Kurukshetra to kill Arjuna. But Shakuni soon learns about Krishna's plot and returns to Duryodhan However Jayadrath returns to battlefield where Shakuni reveals it's just Krishna's plot.
Jayadrath warns Arjuna if his head falls on the ground due to his bow he would be fired too, because of his boon by his father. Many maharathis including Drona, Karna try to protect Jayadratha but fails to do so. Arjuna warns that everyone who supported adharma will be killed in this war in such pathetic way. While Arjuna destroying the rest of the Shakatavuyha, Vikarna, the third eldest Kaurava, challenged Arjuna to an archery fight.
Arjuna asked Bhima to decimate Vikarna, but Bhima refused to, because Vikarna had defended the Pandavas during the Draupadi Vastrapaharanam. Bhima and Vikarna showered arrows at each other. Later Bhima threw his mace at Vikarna, killing him. The muscular Pandava was devastated and mourned his death saying he was a man of Dharma and it was a pity how he lived his life. Drona killed Vrihatkshatra, the ruler of Kekaya and Dhrishtakethu, the ruler of Chedi. The battle continued past sunset. Dushasana's son, Durmashana, was slain by Prativindya, the eldest son of Draupadi and Yudishtira, in a duel.
When the bright moon rose, Ghatotkacha , the rakshasa son of Bhima , slaughtered numerous warriors, like Alambusha and Alayudha attacking while flying in the air. Karna stood against him and both fought fiercely until Karna released the Shakti, a divine weapon given to him by Indra. Ghatotkacha increased his size and fell dead on the Kaurav army killing an Akshauhini of them. Because Drona was very powerful and inconquerable having the irresistible Brahmanda astra , Krishna hinted to Yudhishthira that Drona would give up his arms if his son Ashwatthama was dead.
Bhima proceeded to kill an elephant named Ashwatthama and loudly proclaimed that Ashwatthama was dead. Drona approached Yudhishthira to seek the truth of his son's death. Yudhishthira proclaimed Ashwathama Hatahath, Naro Va Kunjaro Va , implying Ashwathama had died but he was not sure whether it was a Drona's son or an elephant, The latter part of his proclamation Naro va Kunjaro va were drowned out by sound of the conch blown by Krishna intentionally a different version of the story is that Yudhishthira pronounced the last words so feebly that Drona could not hear the word elephant.
Prior to this incident, the chariot of Yudhishthira, proclaimed as Dharma raja King of righteousness , hovered a few inches off the ground. After the event, the chariot landed on the ground as he lied. Drona was disheartened, and laid down his weapons. He was then killed by Dhrishtadyumna to avenge his father's death and satisfy his vow. Later, the Pandava's mother Kunti secretly met her abandoned son Karna and requested him to spare the Pandavas, as they were his younger brothers. Karna promised Kunti that he would spare them except for Arjuna, but also added that he would not fire a same weapon against Arjun twice.
On the sixteenth day, Karna was made the supreme commander of the Kuru army. Karna fought valiantly but was surrounded and attacked by Pandava generals, who were unable to prevail upon him. Karna inflicted heavy damage on the Pandava army, which fled. Then Arjuna successfully resisted Karna's weapons with his own and also inflicted casualties upon the Kaurava army.
The sun soon set and with darkness and dust making the assessment of proceedings difficult, the Kaurava army retreated for the day. The linguistic style of the oldest version of Mahabharata clearly cannot be the basis for determining if and when the events of Mahabharata occurred. The known oldest version has nearly 90, to , poems dominantly with 32 syllables Anushtup chandas , in 18 chapters called Parva's [ref-4 and 5].
It describes a period of draught, with many planetary positions. Then there is this clear reference to pair of eclipses occurring on 13th day as shown below. Fourteenth day, Fifteenth day and in past sixteenth day, but I have never known the Amavasya New Moon day to occur on the thirteenth day. Lunar eclipse followed by solar eclipse on thirteenth day is in a single lunar month etc This reference to Thirteen day eclipse pair appears to be a unique astronomical observation.
Mahabharata Drona Parva also refers to Jayadhratha's killing during a dark episode on 13th day of the war, which some consider as another short solar eclipse. Analysis of the time between successive eclipses, specifically time between end of one and beginning of other has been made, with a view to look at astronomical feasibility of back-to-back eclipses in 13 days, using modern astronomical computer software. Another major issue of how did observers of the period define and determine period between eclipses when no clocks existed, has been addressed.
Eclipses Lunar eclipse occurs when Earth's shadow falls on the Moon. There are about lunar eclipses per century. Lunar eclipses can occur only at full moon, and can be either total or partial.
Further they can be umbral and or penumbral. Total lunar eclipses can last up to 2 hours, while partial lunar eclipses can last up to 4 hours. Any observer on dark face of earth can see when lunar eclipse when it occurs. During period BC to BC, nearly lunar eclipses have probably occurred. A good fraction of these would have been visible in Kurukshethra [ref-6]. Solar Eclipse occurs when Moon's shadow falls on earth observer.
About solar eclipses occur every century. Solar can occur only at new moon. Solar eclipses may be total or annular. Total solar eclipses can last up to about 8 minutes, and partial solar eclipses can last up to minutes. The shadow of moon has a limited size of few thousand miles falling on nearly mile diameter earth.
Hence, solar eclipses can be seen only in a limited range of longitude-latitude where the shadow falls. Elsewhere, even though sun is visible, eclipse will not be seen. Eclipse evaluating computational software and its validation in present context Astronomical calculations have been greatly improved since past 30 years, particularly with considerable amount of trajectory work conducted in Moon and other scientific projects.
High accuracy computer models and software have been developed. The Lodestar Pro was checked for historical eclipses of BC from clay tablet records of Mesopotamia area presently available with British Museum. Wayne Mitchell has analyzed this data [Ref-8]. Lodestar Pro provided excellent match with ref Eclipses at Kurukshethra During the period of our interest, BC to BC, nearly Lunar Eclipses and solar eclipses have occurred on earth. Of these nearly solar and lunar eclipses occurred in pairs of time gap of about nominal 15 days corresponding to roughly half lunar month.
We need to search amongst these for eclipse pairs visible in Kurukshethra , which occurred in 'Thirteen' days. A very detailed scan of all the visible lunar and solar eclipses for every year from BC to BC was made on the Lodestar software for Kurukshethra location.
These are tabulated and plotted. Maximum eclipse time gap end of one eclipse and beginning of next eclipse for naked eye observers was found to be about hours while the minimum was about hours. A plot of time gap between back-to-back eclipses versus eclipse pair number is shown below. This time corresponds to maximum to maximum - not end of one to beginning of next as in the future table.
The plot shows that during the period BC to BC, Julian year corresponds to zero at BC- an imaginary date- Our range corresponds to Julian year to Julian Year nearly pairs of eclipses occurred on earth, which in principle may have been visible at Kurukshethra. Amongst these, nearly 32 pairs would be occurring for period less than 14 days.
Many of these were found to be weak penumbral eclipses of moon, and solar eclipses had such low obscurity as to raise the issue whether any body could see them. Six pairs of 'thirteen day' eclipses could be seen unambiguously. Definition of Day and issue of timing determination It is easy for us, in present time, to precisely analyze the eclipse times based on a 24 hour per day time clock.
However many thousand years ago, such a time evaluation would clearly be irrelevant. Hence the count of the day and time had to be based on clear, natural and unambiguous events such as sunset to sunset or sunrise to sun rise. Hence in all the analyses, presented below, the time of relevant sun rise or sun set is indicated such that the eclipse beginning and end can be evaluated with reference to the sun rise or sun set.
In modern day definition, the period from sunrise to next sunrise is never 24 hours except on equinox day. On all other days, the time will be either less than 24 hours when day light time is shrinking and more than 24 hours when day light time is increasing. For people of ancient times, sunset-to-sunset or sunrise-to-sunrise would be the logical definition of a day. Using this definition, it is possible to determine whether an eclipse pair occurred in 'Thirteen days'.
Kurukshethra eclipses and some planetary retrograde motions The table below shows six pairs of eclipses, which can be analyzed further to determine whether Mahabharata war and events could occur then. There are others that have low obscurity for solar eclipse, or have dominant penumbral lunar eclipse content and hence do not constitute strong candidates for the Mahabharata war. Planets Sani Saturn and Brihaspati Jupiter , Shukra Venus in retrograde motion are illustrated for period around the eclipse pairs.
Let us now look at how any observer can study these eclipses and conclude that the pair occurred in 'Thirteen days'. On Julian August 11 afternoon, a solar eclipse begins 20 minuets before sunset and it is still on going at sunset. Fourteen days later On Julian August 25 in the evening at sunset a lunar eclipse is already occurring. It clearly suggests that eclipse started on the 13th day after the previous eclipse! Obviously the end of lunar and start of solar eclipses were less than 14 days period, or occurred in 13 days.
This could be concluded without the benefit of modern clocks. The dates of this eclipse pair are Julian and Julian month of August. In ancient Bharata , since the full moon occurred on Proshtapada , the month would be considered as Bhadrapada. Normally, this is the monsoon rainy season in North India.
However, there are many occasions when monsoon fails. The epic states that draught like conditions existed. Even during normal monsoon the sky is occasionally clear for the eclipses to have been witnessed. The two planets Jupiter, and Saturn are in motion vakri and these do occur during JBC as illustrated below. Motion of Angaraka or Mars is normal. Items in red show retrograde or Vakri motion. Balakrishna Abstract Mahabharata war is considered by many to be a historical event. Fourteen days later at same time.
Balakrishna, First of all thanks a lot for this effort and research, I would like to request you if you could make a YouTube video of this research that will help lots of other guys to understand this clearly. I thought the exact date could be calculated using the astronomical references from Mahabharata. And then I find this article.
What a hybrid of Science and Sprituality. Dr Balakrishna, thank you for your efforts and time.
It has made for an interesting read. They allege that there were settlers around BC around the Egyptian pyramids. Why is a lot of information and access to certain areas of the Egyptian pyramids being forbidden?? I have a strong thought that somewhere between and BC and today, a lot of knowledge and tech has been lost. I would love to see that day when all lost world's knowledge returns. In one episode of Cosmos, Niel says that the ice age stopped some k years ago. About 10k years ago, the earths climate stabilized.