see url Marriott of Marriott's Photographic Stores, who obtained exclusive rights to sell Judges cards in Hastings.
Judges largely stopped producing cards of local events in Hastings a rare exception was their coverage of the fire that wrecked Hasting pier in July , and instead set themselves the goal of becoming a major national publisher of scenic cards. A start had been made in with the production of a series of London views, including night scenes, and in Judges opened a branch at 22 Ludgate Hill.
The First World War caused a major but temporary drop in business; when it was over, six more branches were created at Llandudno, Bournemouth, Whitby, Brighton, Bettws-y-Coed and Torquay. In Judges bought out Mr Marriott and opened their own branch in Hastings.
In they moved into their present, purpose-built factory and headquarters on the Bexhill Road at Bulverhythe, near Hastings. The distinctive Italianate facade has become a familiar local landmark. The interwar period saw the production of vast numbers local view cards of all parts of the country, from the tip of Cornwall to the far north of Scotland.
Most of the cards were sepia tinted, but limited numbers of black and whites were also issued. Despite mass production, Judges managed to maintain the high standards of finish on which they had built their reputation. With some exceptions, the cards were numbered sequentially see table.
It is generally accepted that Fred Judge took all the photographs for the first or possibly the first cards with occasional contributions from his brother , but in Oliver Butler was employed to help with the photography. Fred ceased taking any new photographs after card , apart from a Buttermere series numbered to In addition to real photographics, Judges also issued greetings cards and cards of charcoal and pencil sketches that Fred Judge drew. Unlike many postcard publishers, Judges produced many non-localised cards of stormy seas, seagulls flying, picturesque corners of farmyards, light dappled ponds, sunlit glades in woods and other attractive subjects.
Fred Judge had an eye for the simple beauties of nature and regretted that more people did not share his vision. He could make an interesting photograph out of such unlikely subjects as seeding dandelions. By the start of hostilities in , Judges had issued an astonishing 22, different cards. The business was scaled down during the war and many of the staff joined the armed forces.
Fred Judge became an ARP fire warden and suffered severe shock in March when a bomb fell close to his guard post, throwing him to the ground. His health began to decline and on February 25, , he died, aged When Thomas Winn Judge died in , Ernest Bartholemew took over the running of the company, introducing coloured cards.
Production of sepia and black and white cards ceased in By this date the total number of sepia and black and white cards in the Main Series had reached about 31, see Andrew Reynolds, "Number of cards issued per county", , Judges' Postcards Study Group Newsletter , 85, ! In addition, the separately numbered L Series of London cards totalled According to Reynolds, Sussex was the most photographed county with 3, cards Trading in the s and 60s was difficult, and one by one the regional branches were closed.
Nevertheless, the company continued to make progress. Then, in December , Ernest Bartholemew and his two fellow directors retired, and Judges was sold to a Cambridge toy manufacturer, which went into receivership twelve months later. Fortunately, Bernard Wolford, who had been appointed by the Cambridge firm to manage Judges, was able to purchase the assets early in , and re-employ the staff. Many millions of cards were published in this era -- it was the golden age of postcards.
Up to this point, most postcards were printed in Germany, which was far ahead of the United States in the use of lithographic processes. The relatively high cost of labor, along with inexperience and changes in public taste, resulted in the production of poor quality cards during this period. Furthermore, strong competition in a narrowing market caused many publishers to go out of business. Linen Era New printing processes allowed printing on post cards with high rag content that caused a linen -like finish.
These cheap cards allowed the use of gaudy dyes for coloring. Many important events and scenes in history are documented only by these cards. Three-dimensional postcards also appeared in this era. By s, the standard size of cards had grown to 4 x 6 inches. Photochromes are not real photos but rather, printed cards done by a photochrome process. To distinguish a printed postcard from a real photo postcard, examine it under a magnifying glass and you will see the dot pattern that is characteristic of printed cards.
They are difficult to discern from real photos but usually don't have the glossy finish of photographs. The Laura Gilpin cards of Mesa Verde and Silverton are excellent examples of the photogravure process. One easy way to approximate when a postcard was mailed if the cancellation date is unreadable is to know the changes in rates for mailing postcards. The following table comes from Historical statistics of the United States: When World War I ended at the end of , the rate was lowered to its pre-War level of one cent. Commission Rate Board over-estimated revenue needs in and was forced to reduce postage rate in Two major postcard publishers, Curt Teich and Detroit Publishing Company, used numbering schemes that can be helpful in dating a card.
In the beginning, Teich apparently made no attempt to define when a card was printed. Research has revealed some consistencies however, such as these: The company used code numbers and letters to indicate the date the card was published.
The codes appear either on the scenic side or in the postage box. The number and letter before the dash in the code stand for the date. The number indicates the last figure in the date and the letter indicates the decade. Other topics were produced including flowers and animals. Between and Fred produced many local views and always had his bicycle at the ready to take photographs of any local events or disasters and produce postcards for sale, often by the next day.
Dating Judges Postcards. Date old picture postcards. Judges Postcards is a picture postcard manufacturer based in St Leonards-on- Sea, East A card dated exists, written by T.H.W. Judge, and signed Judges Ltd, with which Thomas Winn sought business from W H Smith in Nottingham.
In he joined the Royal Photographic Society and was elected a Fellow the same year. Between and , many different types of photographic paper were used although 'Printing Out Paper' was widely used, with prints developing in the sunlight coming in through the shop and other windows. This machine could produce larger production runs of cards to a consistent format and quality. This coincided with the publication of the first 10 cards in the new main series that was eventually to run from which were used in the Judges Postcard Voting Competition. In the firm again moved to new premises, bought more new Graber machinery and was re-formed as Judges Limited, a wholesale producer of postcards.
By appointing sole agents to sell their cards in specific towns and cities and opening their own retail depots in others, Judges became a national manufacturer. Towards the end of the First World War , the company experienced a shortage of paper and as a result had to buy some from Sanbride, or possibly sub contracted the printing to them.
Also by then Fred was using his artistic talents to produce packs of 4 or 6 lithographic sketch versions of certain cards and packs of 12 photogravure cards to offer cheaper alternatives. By the s, the success of the company was partially because they were able to establish a recognisable brand, known for the consistency and high quality of its products. Leonards was opened in The Second World War saw the cessation of new negatives and the company was in a poor state.